Argument Markup Language (AML)

Introduction to the Argument Markup Language

The Argument Markup Language (AML) is an XML interchange language for structured arguments. It is intended to be both human and machine readable, capable of representing many different forms of structured arguments. Its goals include the following:

The development of an XML schema for representing structured arguments was originally motivated by our involvement in DARPA's Project Genoa. This project included multiple structured argument development tools, argument viewers, and a corporate memory repository for retaining arguments, all to support the intelligence community in rapidly and systematically accumulating evidence, facilitating collaboration, and testing hypotheses that support decision-making. While the structure of AML was influenced by our own structured argumentation tool, SEAS, it was our intent for it to support the other tools in this project and beyond. While our goal was to try and represent the concepts common to all structured argumentation tools, different argumentation tools, developed to support different classes of problems and technical approaches, invariably have some unshared concepts, making the interchange of arguments across tools necessarily imperfect.

Our approach was to

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