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Sample Interactions

Perhaps the best way to obtain an intuitive sense of how the OAA typically functions is to briefly look at an example of how OAA has been applied to a real application. In the Automated Office system, a mobile executive with a telephone and a laptop computer can access and task commercial applications such as calendars, databases, and email systems running back at the office. As depicted in Figure 2, an application agent provides a wrapper for each program, making its functionality and natural language vocabulary available to the agent community through registration with a facilitator.

A user interface (UI) agent, shown in Figure 3, runs on the user's local laptop and is responsible for accepting user input, sending requests to the facilitator for delegation to appropriate agents, and displaying the results of the distributed computation. The user may interact directly with a specific remote application by clicking on active areas in the interface, calling up a form or window for that application, and making queries with standard interface dialog mechanisms. Conversely, a user may express a task to be executed by using typed, handwritten, or spoken (over the telephone) English sentences, without explicitly specifying which agent or agents should perform the task. For instance, if the question ``What is my schedule?'' is written in the user interface, this request will be sent by the UI to the facilitator, which in turn will ask a natural language (NL) agent to translate the query into ICL. To accomplish this task, the NL agent may itself need to make requests of the agent community to resolve unknown words such as ``me'' (the UI agent can respond with the name of the current user) or ``schedule'' (the calendar agent defines this word). The resulting ICL expression is then routed by the facilitator to appropriate agents (in this case, the calendar agent) to execute the request. Results are sent back to the UI agent for display.

The spoken request ``When mail arrives for me about security, notify me immediately.'' produces a slightly more complex example involving communication among all agents in the system. After translation into ICL as described above, the facilitator installs a trigger on the mail agent to look for new messages about security. When one such message does arrive in its mail spool, the trigger fires, and the facilitator matches the action part of the trigger to capabilities published by the notification agent. The notification agent is an example of a meta-agent, as it makes use of rules concerning the optimal use of different output modalities (email, fax, speech generation over the telephone) plus information about an individual user's preferences to determine the best way of relaying a message through available media transfer application agents. After some competitive parallelism to locate the user (the calendar and database agents may have different guesses as to where to find the user) and some cooperative parallelism to produce required information (telephone number of location, user password, and an audio file containing a text-to-speech representation of the email message), a telephone agent can call the user, verify identity through touchtones, and then play the message.

Some key ideas illustrated by the above examples are the following:

  1. As new agents connect to the facilitator, registering capability specifications and natural language vocabulary, what the user can say and do dynamically changes.
  2. The interpretation and execution of a task is a distributed process, with no one agent defining the set of possible inputs to the system.
  3. A single request can produce cooperation and flexible communication among many agents, written in different programming languages and spread across multiple machines.

In our following detailed view of the Open Agent Architecture, we order the presentation top-down, beginning with the means by which a group of agents works together, then considering the mechanisms that support the use of shared data repositories and triggers, and finally describing some of the basic infrastructure underlying the construction of individual agents. To illustrate the technical aspects of the approach, we describe several applications implemented within the OAA.

next up previous
Next: Mechanisms of Cooperation Up: Overview of OAA Previous: OAA System Structure

Adam Cheyer
Mon Oct 19 17:14:26 PDT 1998