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AIC Timeline

The Artificial Intelligence Center at SRI International has been a center of excellence and innovation for over thirty-five years. The Center has made many important contributions to the AI field over the years, and new advances continue to be made. This timeline shows just a few of the AI Center's major achievements and milestones.


2007-Present: Karto

KartoTM enables developers of mobile robot solutions to integrate navigation and mapping intelligence into their designs. As a software-only solution, the KartoTM SDK gives developers the flexibility to work with the widest range of mobile robot platforms, simulation environments, operating systems and robotics middleware.
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2003-Present: RADAR

A cognitive assistant that learns to help a human user in situations of intense information overload.
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2003-Present: CALO

A personal cognitive assistant that learns "in the wild".
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2003-Present: Angler

Angler is a tool that helps intelligence/policy professionals explore, understand, and overcome cognitive biases, and collaboratively expand their joint cognitive vision through use of divergent & convergent thinking techniques (such as brainstorming and clustering).
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2003-2004: Centibots

The first large-scale collaborative robotic system, consisting of approximately 100 small, resource limited robots, performing reconnaissance missions.
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Link Analysis Workbench (LAW)

2001-Present: Link Analysis Workbench (LAW)

LAW is a system that helps intelligence professionals define and match patterns within large, incomplete, and noisy sets of relational data.
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1999-Present: GeoWeb

An open, global, and scalable infrastructure for rapidly discovering information on the Internet which is associated with a physical location.
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1998-Present: GeoVRML

An ISO standards-based format for modeling complex 3D models with precise geographic referencing.
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Structured Evidential Argumentation System (SEAS)

1997-Present: Structured Evidential Argumentation System (SEAS)

SEAS is a software tool developed for intelligence analysts that records analytic reasoning and methods that supports collaborative analysis across contemporary and historical situations and analysts and has broad applicability beyond intelligence analysis.
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1997-2000: Automated Population of Geospatial Databases (APGD)

A system for dramatically increasing the productivity of an image analyst tasked with the extraction of 3D cartographic features (e.g. roads, rivers, communication lines, buildings, and land cover) and their attributes from imagery and supporting auxiliary data.
Small Vision Module (SVM)

1996-Present: Small Vision Module (SVM)

A hardware and software implementation of area correlation stereo. The hardware consists of two CMOS 320x240 grayscale imagers and lenses, low-power A/D converters, a digital signal processor and a small flash memory for program storage.

1994-Present: Open Agent Architecture (OAA)

A framework for integrating a community of heterogeneous software agents in a distributed environment.
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1994: Flakey

The AIC's second-generation mobile robot, Flakey, was featured on the PBS show Scientific Amercian Frontiers, hosted by Alan Alda. Flakey had real-time stereo vision algorithms to distinguish and follow people, and the DECIPHER speech recognition system to respond to spoken commands. Flakey won prizes at the 1992 and 1993 AAAI Robot competitions.
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1994: AIC on the Web

The AIC Web site appeared on the NCSA "What's New" list of new Web servers on May 17, 1994.

1993-Present: TerraVision

A 3D terrain visualization system that can browse massive volumes of terrain imagery and elevation data over the Web.
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1993-Present: EcoCyc

A bioinformatics database that describes the genome and the biochemical machinery of E. coli. Scientists can use the graphical interface to EcoCyc to visualize biochemical reactions and pathways, operons and regulons, and the layout of genes on the E. coli chromosome.
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1993-2002: Gemini

A natural-language parsing and semantic interpretation system based on unification grammar,and intended for application to spoken-language understanding and generation. It was used in prototypes to make air travel reservations (ATIS) and to control military simulations (CommandTalk).
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1992-2000: FASTUS

Finite State Automata-based Text Understanding System (FASTUS) is a system for extracting information from free text. It has become the basis for nearly all future information extraction systems, and was the technology underlying the Discern Communications spinoff created in 2000.
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Radius Common Development Environment (RCDE)

1991-Present: Radius Common Development Environment (RCDE)

An environment for deriving, editing, and viewing 3D cartographic models. This system was based upon the earlier Cartographic Modeling Environment (CME) from 1986 which merged the capabilities of ImagCalc and TerrainCalc with additional interactive 3D modeling facilities of its own.
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1990: CONDOR

An architecture for context-based machine vision, which was arguably the first significant vision system that explicitly represented and exploited context as the basis of itsarchitecture.

1988-1992: Theorem-Proving and Program Synthesis

Several fundamental improvements to automatic theorem-proving systems, and their application to the automatic synthesis of computer programs.

1987-Present: SNARK

A flexible Lisp-based automated theorem-proving program for artificial intelligence applications.
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1986-2000: Procedural Reasoning System (PRS)

A framework for constructing real-time reasoning systems that can perform complex tasks in dynamic environments.
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1986-1997: Gister

SRI pioneered evidential reasoning for drawing conclusions from multiple sources of evidential information about dynamic real-world situations. We have developed formal foundations for reasoning under uncertainty covering both probabilistic models (i.e., Bayesian and Dempster-Shafer) and possibilistic models (i.e., propositional logic and fuzzy logic) and have incorporated all of these techniques into a single uncertain reasoning tool, Gister.
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1986-1992: TACITUS

A text-understanding system using abductive inference applied to military messages and news articles.
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1986: Epipolar-Plane Image Analysis (EPI) System

A system that can effectively construct a 3D description of a scene from a sequence of images.
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1985: StereoSys

A hierarchical area-based matching system for the automatic construction of 3-D models from stereo pairs of images.
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1985: Nonmonotonic Reasoning

Early fundamental results in this form of automated reasoning where introducing new information can lead to the withdrawal of conclusions. Autoepistemic Logic was invented at SRI, and shown to be equivalent to Ray Reiter's Default Logic.
Autonomous Land Vehicle (ALV)

1984-1990: Autonomous Land Vehicle (ALV)

SRI participated in the DARPA ALV project, developing stereo sensing and obstacle detection techniques, and then applied these techniques to infrared imagery. This work lead into the follow-on UGV (Unmanned Ground Vehicle) project in 1992.

1984-1989: Prolog Technology Theorem Prover (PTTP)

PTTP extends PROLOG's unification, search, and inference procedures for fast complete first-order theorem proving.
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1984-1986: TerrainCalc

An interactive system for synthesizing realistic sequences of perspective views of real-world terrain. TerrainCalc introduced the idea of the fly-through, created using texture-mapping aerial imagery onto digital terrain models.

1983: Image Understanding (IU) Testbed

SRI was chosen as the site of the ARPA IU Testbed, a facility that integrated much of the vision work supported by ARPA at that time.

1983: Symantec founded by Gary Hendrix


1982-1984: ImagCalc

An image analysis system that provided flexible access to 2D image processing tools, including displays at multiple resolutions, perspective projections, and a wide range of image operators. This was the first interactive single-user image processing and manipulation system coupled with a highresolution bit-mapped display.

1981-1995: Grasper

Grasper is a system for viewing and manipulating graph-structured information, and for building graph-based user interfaces for application programs.
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1981-1985: Parsing and Translation (PATR) System

One of the first unification-based systems for parsing natural language. It was followed by several others, including the Core Language Engine at SRI Cambridge and Gemini at SRI Menlo Park.
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RANSAC (Random Sample Consensus)

1981: RANSAC (Random Sample Consensus)

Publication of a paper that introduced a new, now widely accepted paradigm for robust computation (and also presented the solution to some previously open problems in imaging geometry).
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1980-1983: Transportable English Access Medium (TEAM)

A project to develop easily transportable systems for natural language access to databases.
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1980-1983: Knowledge Learning and Using System (KLAUS)

A project that developed reasoning techniques for interacting with users, accepting instructions, and absorbing new knowledge, all stated in plain English.
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System for Interactive Planning and Execution (SIPE)

1979-2001: System for Interactive Planning and Execution (SIPE)

A system that pioneered the use of hierarchical task network (HTN) planning for solving practical planning problems.
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1978: Machine Intelligence Corporation (MIC) founded

Charlie Rosen left SRI to start a company to manufacture and market vision models and, later, robot systems.

1977-1980: LADDER

A system to develop a natural language interface to distributed databases.
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1976-1981: PROSPECTOR

One of the world's first performance expert systems, PROSPECTOR gave advice to geologists about ore deposits. It predicted the existence of a hitherto unknown molybdenum deposit in Washington state.
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1976: Image Understanding (IU)

Machine vision Techniques are applied to photo interpretation as part of the ARPA IU Program.
SRI Vision Module

1975-1979: SRI Vision Module

A device for industrial part recognition using a trainable decision tree procedure.

1975: NOAH

The first hierarchical and non-linear planning system.

1972-1977: The Speech Understanding Project

The first prototype of a system allowing spoken dialogue with an expert system.

1969: QA3 and QA4

Early applications of theorem-proving to automated problem-solving.
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1969: STRIPS

The STanford Research Institute Problem Solver was used as the planning engine for Shakey. It was able to learn and use generalized versions of previously computed plans and employed theorem-proving to decide whether or not an action could be applied in a given state.

1968: A* Algorithm

A fundamental optimal graph-searching algorithm, first used as a route planning solver for robot navigation.
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Shakey the Robot

1966-1972: Shakey the Robot

One of the first autonomous mobile robots. The first prototype used a mobile cart with a TV camera and an optical range finder, and was controlled from an SDS-40 over radio and TV links.
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1966: Artificial Intelligence Center is formed


1961: MINOS I

One of the first perceptron machines. It could be trained to respond to a pattern of binary inputs using 72 variable magnetic weights.

1957: Applied Physics Laboratory

SRI's activities in intelligent systems begin, with focus on learning machines and self-organizing systems.
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