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Publication in BibTeX Format

@TECHREPORT{AICPub2084:1977, AUTHOR={Agin, Gerald J.}, TITLE={Servoing with Visual Feedback}, ADDRESS={333 Ravenswood Ave, Menlo Park, CA 94025}, INSTITUTION={AI Center, SRI International}, MONTH={July}, NUMBER={149}, YEAR={1977}, ABSTRACT={The automation of assembly jobs using general-purpose manipulators could benefit from the use of noncontact (visual) sensing for coarse positional control and contact (force or touch) sensing for fine positioning. We have mounted a small solid-state TV camera in the hand of an industrial manipulator, thus enabling the manipulator to automatically position itself coarsely above a workpiece, so that a bolt may be inserted in a hole using compliant mountings for fine control. Servoing proceeds at one-half to one correction per second, resulting in an overall time of roughly five seconds to find a hole and insert a bolt. It should be possible to reduce this to two seconds or less with straightforward engineering techniques. Sections of this paper discuss the geometric considerations that affect mounting of the camera relative to the hand, describe the hardware used, outline picture processing algorithms for location of the target position within the camera’s field of view, briefly discuss path control software, and report operating speed, accuracy, and reliability of the system. }, NOTE={Submitted for presentation at the 7th International Symposium on Industrial Robots, Tokyo, October 19-21, 1977. This work was supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant APR-75-13074, with the supplementary support of ten industrial affiliates.} }

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